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The Campaign to Save the Boundary Waters goes back to court

Friday, April 17, 2020
Posted by
Tom Landwehr

On Friday, April 17, 2020, a group of partners led by Northeastern Minnesotans for Wilderness, the lead organization in the Campaign to Save the Boundary Waters, filed an appeal to a recent court decision. The March 17, 2020, decision by Washington, D.C. U.S. District Court Judge Trevor McFadden denied our challenge to the reinstatement of two federal mineral leases (see our March 18, 2020, blog). The lawsuit alleges that the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) unlawfully reinstated mineral leases that had been terminated in 2016. In May of 2018, the Trump Administration resurrected these leases from the grave and unlawfully ignored fifty years of lease interpretation and practice in order to reinstate these leases for Chilean-based mining giant Antofagasta.

Despite the ongoing challenges posed by COVID-19, the Trump Administration is continuing its assault on the Boundary Waters, and we are continuing to fight back. You can help protect this Wilderness and keep the momentum going by rushing a critical gift to the Campaign today.

The appeal, which was filed with the Washington, D.C., U.S. Court of Appeals, restates our position that the reinstatement was unlawful.  The leases were originally granted in 1966 and twice renewed at the discretion of the U.S. Forest Service and the BLM without any environmental review of impacts to the Boundary Waters. The termination of leases in 2016 was the result of a careful and scientifically-based two-year analysis conducted by the U.S. Forest Service that found the proposed sulfide-ore mine would create unacceptable risks of harm to the Boundary Waters and to the Superior National Forest. The Appeals Court will take a fresh look at the facts and the law and, we believe, substantiate our position that the reinstatement is unlawful and the leases were lawfully terminated in 2016.

Court cases take time - one or two years, for sure - so we will keep you updated as developments happen. Thanks for your patience and ongoing support - the Boundary Waters deserves no less! Please give today.

Protecting the Boundary Waters during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Wednesday, April 15, 2020
Posted by
Campaign to Save the Boundary Waters

In this challenging time, the team at Save the Boundary Waters hopes you and yours are safe and healthy. Just like so many people around the globe, our lives have been turned upside down by the pandemic and its continued fallout. Times like these remind us how critical good health is. It is also a reminder of how important the Boundary Waters is to our physical and emotional health, and we all long to get back there soon.

As we work to maintain our personal and community health, we are also working to maintain the health of America’s favorite wilderness. The federal government and Antofagasta are working overtime to get this mine approved; we cannot slow down our work.

We are so grateful for you, our passionate and dedicated supporters, and we know that our work to protect the Boundary Waters can and must go on. Campaign staff are working remotely from their homes as we continue our scientific, legal, advocacy, outreach and organizing work to protect the Wilderness from sulfide-ore copper mining. 

Here are a few ways you can stay connected to this Wilderness, its surrounding communities, and the fight to protect it for generations to come.

Staying Connected:

  • Attend our weekly “Opt Inside” webinars for supporters with different topics each week. RSVP here
  • Check out this page of Boundary Waters activities you can do from home on our OptInside resource page
  • Reach out to any of our staff or through social media.
  • Join us as a Digital Volunteer during these more isolated (and digital) times. Learn more here.

Supporting the Boundary Waters Community

Small businesses and our wilderness-edge communities need your support right now. Here are some ways you can help:

Trip planning questions

We all want to go to the Boundary Waters and are looking forward to paddling season. But you might be asking - can I go on my trip?

We hope you are staying safe during these unprecedented times. 

Feel the call of Paddler’s Paradise

Wednesday, April 1, 2020
Posted by
Campaign to Save the Boundary Waters

Boundary Waters Trip-Planning Resources

Photo Credit: Ellen Hawkins

In this time of “social distancing” many people are spending more time than usual indoors. But, that doesn’t mean you can’t daydream and prep for a future paddling trip in the Boundary Waters. 

Since we all need to #optinside and stay close to home right now to slow the spread of COVID-19, so many people are safely exploring the beauty of nature close to home in your yards and neighborhoods. 

You may be eager to plan for your future Boundary Waters adventures, and if you’ve never undertaken a canoe trip to the Boundary Waters, we’re here to help and share some of the best resources and trip planning options.

Most of the businesses featured below are independent Minnesota businesses that rely on your support.

We hope you are staying safe during these challenging times. 

Digital Tools

For overnight trips into the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness between May 1 and September 30, you’ll need to reserve a permit for a designated entry point and date. Head to to secure permits. Many outfitting companies will assist you in planning your trip and selecting the best entry points and routes, so you can also reach out that way.

Paddle Planner is a great resource that offers interactive paddling maps, campsite ratings, portage information, detailed lake and entry point information, and more. Point your web browser to Paddle Planner to scout out your next Boundary Waters trip from the comfort of your own home! 

Check out our Boundary Waters Business Coalition for a list of all the wonderful businesses that have joined the fight to protect the Boundary Waters from copper mining! Please support these businesses as you are able.

Recommended Northern Minnesota Lodging & Outfitting 


Water navigation can always be a little tricky. Don’t get lost! Check out True North Map Company for wearable, durable, and functional cloth maps. A portion of all proceeds go back to the Campaign to Save the Boundary Waters as well! 

Plan out your next trip with a map from Voyageur Maps, a Minnesota business that makes time-tested Boundary Waters route maps to help you navigate the beautiful wilderness.

Gear Up! 

Get ready to safely paddle this season with MTI Adventurewear life jackets. MTI is a family-owned business and longtime supporter of the Campaign to Save the Boundary Waters. MTI is currently open online for business and offering free shipping!

Help your furry friends get ready for paddling season with Ruffwear performance dog gear! Ruffwear has all the outdoor needs for your best friend to comfortably take on the outdoors with you this Summer.

Check out Granite Gear for backpacks, dry sacks, canoe accessories, and more! They even have a shop in Two Harbors on the North Shore!

Shop the Piragis Northwoods Catalog for the best Boundary Waters gear and resources while supporting this main street Ely business!

Minnesota family-owned business Cooke Custom Sewing also makes awesome Boundary Waters canoe packs and equipment! 

Start planning out the ‘menu’ for your upcoming trip with these gourmet meals from Backpacker’s Pantry and Trailtopia.

Satisfy your snack cravings on trail with muesli from Seven Sundays or a Boundary Waters Blueberry cookie from Kakookies.

Been thinking about finally purchasing a beautiful canoe of your own? Consider Wenonah Canoe Manufacturers and Northstar Canoes - both are Minnesota companies and closely involved in our efforts to protect the Wilderness.


Get ready to paddle with your own beautiful, handcrafted paddle from one of these local companies- Glørud Design or Bending Branches.

If you simply want to shop in a way that supports small businesses and gives back to the Campaign to Save the Boundary Waters - check out our shop to support page for current merch and promotions.

BWCAW Rules and Regulations

  • Nine (9) people and four (4) watercraft are the maximum amount allowed gathered together in the wilderness. You may not exceed this limit at any time or anywhere.

  • You must enter the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) at the entry point and on the date shown on your permit.

  • Cans and glass bottles are not allowed

  • Fires are allowed within the steel fire grates at designated campsites unless campfire restrictions are in place. Make sure your fire is completely out before you leave. 

  • Camp only at Forest Service designated campsites that have steel fire grates and wilderness latrines.

  • Fireworks of any kind are illegal. 

  • See all rules and regulations here:

Always remember to practice Leave No Trace (LNT) principles and leave your campsite or lunch stop better than you found it!

Happy and healthy trails everyone! 

Power structure at McCollum-bill hearing shows what local BWCA supporters are up against

Friday, March 27, 2020
Posted by
Campaign to Save the Boundary Waters

Power structure at McCollum-bill hearing shows what local BWCA supporters are up against

ELY, MN--This week MinnPost published an opinion piece by Steve Piragis, a local Ely business owner, that outlined the power structure arrayed against those local Minnesotans who love the Boundary Waters. This power structure was on full display at the Feb. 5th hearing in Washington, DC on Rep. Betty McCollum’s bill that would permanently protect the Boundary Waters from the threat of sulfide-ore copper mining. In the piece he writes:

The nature of the power structure arrayed against those of us who love the Boundary Waters and whose livelihoods depend on it were on clear display in the U.S. House of Representatives in Washington, D.C., on Feb. 5. I went to Washington with other local Ely business people, including another canoe trip outfitter, an owner of an outdoor clothing manufacturing company and winter dogsled business, and the executive director of a wilderness-focused nonprofit organization that has been taking people into the Boundary Waters for many decades. Together the payrolls for our five businesses provide over $4 million in annual income to the Ely area…..

…..Although sulfide-ore mining boosters like U.S. Rep. Pete Stauber of Minnesota’s 8th District are quick to claim that opposition to copper mining near the Boundary Waters is an “insult to local people,” the Antofagasta supporters at the Feb. 5 hearing were not local people. They were instead an Antofagasta/ Twin Metals executive, a Minnesota Power executive, the chief lobbyist for the Minnesota copper-mining industry, and an employee of a mining construction company. In fact, the real insult to locals like me and my employees, friends, and colleagues, and to the thousands of other people who live in northeastern Minnesota because of the Boundary Waters, is the determination of powerful organizations to ride roughshod over the public interest. The great majority of Minnesotans get this — poll after poll shows a strong majority of people in every part of the state opposed to copper mining near the Boundary Waters.

You can read the full piece here.

Lawsuit Update

Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Posted by
Campaign to Save the Boundary Waters

Court Upholds Illegal Mining Leases Next to Boundary Waters

This week, a U.S. District Court Judge in Washington, D.C. issued a ruling in our federal lawsuit that challenged the May 2018 U.S Department of Interior decision to reinstate two federal mineral leases held by Antofagasta’s Twin Metals.   

Northeastern Minnesotans for Wilderness, the leader of the Campaign to Save the Boundary Waters, and nine northeastern Minnesota businesses sued in federal court to challenge the unlawful reinstatement of mineral leases that had been terminated in 2016. Four conservation groups later filed similar lawsuits, and the cases were consolidated. 

This decision is a blow to the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, our nation’s most visited Wilderness Area. It allows the Trump Administration to continue its reckless march toward authorizing an industrial mining complex that will replace a legacy of conservation and recreation with pollution and environmental degradation. The Campaign to Save the Boundary Waters will fight this bad idea - and Judge McFadden’s decision - every step of the way.

Judge Trevor N. McFadden decided to give deference to the Department of the Interior’s decision to reverse its 2016 position. He concluded that the Department’s actions were not arbitrary and capricious and not “‘a guise for changing previous decisions’ based on policy preferences.” 

We strongly disagree. We believe the record clearly shows that the Trump administration reversal was a political decision to benefit Antofagasta. Our legal team’s request to introduce documents from the Department of Interior that demonstrated that the Department’s actions were motivated by politics and Trump Administration policy changes, not the rule of law or science, was denied.   

Moreover, the decision ignores the plain language of the mineral leases in question, the administrative record from the Department of the Interior and its agency, the Bureau of Land Management, and the consistent interpretation and application of these leases over the past five decades. Northeastern Minnesotans for Wilderness and its nine business partners intend to appeal Judge McFadden’s decision to the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia.

This decision failed to recognize the clear, plain language of the leases and twisted itself into knots to justify the predetermined policy decision of the Trump Administration to sell out America’s most popular Wilderness to a Chilean billionaire who also happens to be the landlord of Ivanka Trump." - Executive Director, Tom Landwehr

We need your help to bring this to the Court of Appeals. Help continue our advocacy for the protection and preservation of the Boundary Waters. We will have more information to share as we learn more and dig in, but please help us take this fight to the next level with a donation today

More information:

History of the leases:

Twin Metals Minnesota’s mineral leases were originally terminated by the Obama Administration in December 2016. At the end of a three-year review and a public comment period that included two heavily-attended public meetings, the Forest Service concluded that this was the wrong location for a risky copper mine. Former Forest Service Chief Thomas Tidwell stated, “A regionally-untested copper-nickel sulfide ore mine within the same watershed as the BWCAW might cause serious and irreparable harm to this unique, iconic, and irreplaceable wilderness area.”


This 2016 decision was reversed on May 2, 2018 by the Trump Administration, which unlawfully reinstated Twin Metals’ expired minerals leases. Northeastern Minnesotans for Wilderness (NMW), the lead organization of the Campaign to Save the Boundary Waters, and nine Minnesota outdoor recreation businesses challenged the unlawful reinstatement of federal mineral leases by the Trump administration by filing a lawsuit in federal court in June 2018. Two additional lawsuits were subsequently filed by four conservation groups. After the three lawsuits were consolidated into a single case, and Twin Metals intervened on the side of the Trump Administration.

The nine plaintiffs in the lawsuit are Voyageur Outward Bound School, Piragis Northwoods Company, Ely Outfitting Company, Hungry Jack Outfitters, Sawbill Outfitters, River Point Resort and Outfitting Company, Northstar Canoe, Wenonah Canoe, and Women’s Wilderness Discovery.

On Friday, December 20, 2019, NMW’s pro bono lawyers at Morrison & Foerster presented the case for NMW, nine businesses, and four conservation groups before US District Court Judge Trevor McFadden. National Chair Becky Rom and Matt Norton, Policy and Science Director for the Campaign to Save the Boundary Waters, and many of our supporters and partners attended the oral arguments.

Judge McFadden unfortunately ruled in favor of the Department of the Interior and Twin Metals this week, and upheld the Trump Administration reversal of Twin Metals lease termination. We are disappointed in the decision and do not agree with it.

What happens next:

We will continue our legal challenge to the unlawfully reinstated mineral leases by filing an appeal of this decision to the U. S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia.

Donate now to help us continue our efforts to protect the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness for future generations. Your support is critical. 

Campaign events canceled due to COVID-19

Thursday, March 12, 2020
Posted by
Campaign to Save the Boundary Waters

We are grateful for you and your activism to protect the Boundary Waters. The sanctitude of that special place seems even more important in this time of crisis, and our fight even more important. Regrettably, because of the COVID-19 pandemic, we are officially canceling all events scheduled in the coming 6+ weeks, and are postponing our spring 2020 Boundary Waters Gala until October 2020 (specific date yet to be determined).

If you have already purchased your tickets for this year’s gala, they will remain valid for our rescheduled October 2020 event.

If you have questions, comments, or concerns, please do not hesitate to reach out to Ingrid Lyons or Carter Sample. We look forward to staying connected. We are working on multiple fronts to stop this mine, and that work cannot stop. We know these are unprecedented times, and we are continuing to work towards protecting the Boundary Waters from the impacts of toxic sulfide-ore copper mining. 

Thank you to those of you who have donated and had planned to come to these events -- we are grateful for your support. 

We will keep you updated on the status of future film screenings and events as we monitor the effects of COVID-19. You can stay updated by visiting:

We are working on a digital way for you to enjoy this documentary, please check your email and our social channels in the coming weeks to learn more. 

Have questions? Please reach out to

Sixty Pages Redacted from Environmental Study

Friday, March 6, 2020
Posted by
Campaign to Save the Boundary Waters

Last week, U.S. Rep. Betty McCollum stood in a congressional hearing and showed the almost completely redacted report from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. This report was supposed to show the findings of a (now-cancelled) two-year-long, unfinished study on the risks of sulfide-ore copper mining near Minnesota’s Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. 

60 blacked-out pages...

“Would you say that this level of redaction to a Forest Service study is normal? To have something that is so redacted?”

Congresswoman Betty McCollum has repeatedly asked for this information and even included report language in the Interior-Environment funding bill at the end of December to get the study finished and released. That language was aggressively stripped out of the final bill by the White House.

Everything except for the cover has been completely redacted. The scientific findings of this study are being kept from Elected Officials and the general public. We the taxpayers deserve to see the findings of this study. We deserve to know the real cost of putting a copper mine right next to America’s most visited Wilderness.

You can find the document here.

Timeline of study:
Obama Administration denied mineral leases and started a two-year study.

In December 2016, after a years-long consideration of the risks involved with sulfide-ore copper mining, the U.S. Forest Service sent a 21-page carefully-reasoned letter to the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM), announcing that the Forest Service would not consent to renewal of two expiring federal mineral leases held by Antofagasta’s subsidiary, Twin Metals. The next day, the BLM rejected Twin Metals’ lease renewal applications. Also the next day, the BLM and Forest Service announced that a 20-year ban on mineral leasing and exploration permits in the Boundary Waters watershed would be considered and studied.

Shortly thereafter, the Forest Service, with assistance from the BLM, launched an environmental review that would last two years. This study was designed to analyze the environmental, economic, and social impacts of the proposed 20-year mineral leasing and exploration moratorium, and to consider the risks that sulfide-ore copper mining would pose for the region if the moratorium were not adopted. The environmental review study initially announced as an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) but later downgraded to an Environmental Assessment (EA), is required under the federal law known as the Federal Land Policy Management Act (FLPMA).  The study’s purpose was to inform and guide the Secretary of the Interior’s decision on whether to order the requested 20-year mineral leasing ban. 

Study Abruptly Cancelled

In September 2018, 20 months into the two-year study, the Secretary of the Department of Agriculture, which includes the Forest Service, abruptly revoked the Forest Service’s request for a 20-year mineral leasing ban and cancelled the nearly-complete environmental review. The Department of Agriculture’s explanation was that no new science had been found during the first 20 months of the study.  This was not only untrue (dozens of new scientific reports and papers had been delivered to the agencies during the study), but even it had been true, it would have supported the Forest Service’s original decision - that sulfide-ore copper mining carries an unacceptable risk of causing irreparable harm to the Superior National Forest and the Boundary Waters.

Since the study’s cancellation, the Forest Service and the Department of Agriculture have refused to share the study’s reports with the public. The federal agencies have even ignored written and in-person requests from Congress. Only a federal lawsuit by The Wilderness Society’s 2019 under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) caused federal agencies to release the report. Before doing so, however, the agencies blacked-out the entire report except for the cover page. 

Leases Renewed

By May 2nd, 2019, the BLM had reinstated and renewed the terminated leases. It did so after releasing a sham of an environmental review document -- an EA -- that ignored the negative environmental, economic, and social impacts of renewing leases whose only purpose is to enable the same dangerous sulfide-ore copper mining that the Forest Service had already rejected.  

Sulfide-ore copper mining risks the destruction of land and forest, and the permanent pollution of the lakes, rivers of America’s canoe country.  We must prevent sulfide-ore copper mining if we are to protect the Boundary Waters for future generations. 

Betty’s Bill

On January 15, 2020, Congresswoman McCollum introduced HR 5598. This bill would protect the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, Quetico Provincial Park, and Voyageurs National Park by putting federal lands in the Boundary Waters watershed off-limits to sulfide-ore copper mining. 

Tell your representative today to co-sponsor HR 5598, a bill to protect the Boundary Waters!

Take Action  

Winter In the North

Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Posted by

Our love of the North started years ago. We stumbled upon this place as most travelers do. As you way down the Gunflint from Grand Marais, It's hard to describe the feeling of the North and its wilderness. I've tried many times to quantify it with words. However, I never feel like I do it justice. When we head North, it feels like coming home. The wilderness is inviting yet mysterious. It's unlike any location we've ever experienced. There is a feeling that seems to encapsulate you when you're here like a warm embrace from an old friend. You know know that there is something special about this place.
After experiencing the BWCA on our first Canoe trip in early October, we knew that we would want to do a winter camping trip. It's something we've been talking about for years. But like anything worthwhile, there is a steep learning curve. One doesn't merely go camping, in the North, in the middle of winter. There are a lot of factors at play here. The weather is the most concerning factor—our propensity for adventure often our ways our fear of the unknown. So we made the leap into planning the little outing. 
Luckily we had friends who have been doing this kind of winter camping for years. We relied heavily on them for their guidance both during the four days of winter camping the weeks leading up to it. 
There are a few factors to consider when you decide that this is something that you'd like to embark on. 
  1. Do you like the cold: It sounds silly — but it's a real question. Cold is going to be the friend that never leaves you. 
  2. Do you have the right gear: Having gear that is rated for bitter cold is incredibly essential. That and knowing how to layer for warmth.
  3. What will do you do food: Packing enough food is difficult. You burn more calories in the winter. So it's important to bring more than you think you need. 
  4. How will you sleep: To be honest, this was our biggest concern. You're most exposed at night. So having a sleeping system that can support you is crucial. 

We spent months prepping our gear list. I'm not going to lie — it was a pricy gear list. There are cheaper ways to approach a trip like this. But it's important to note that proper gear costs money and vis versa. So investing in something like this is never a bad thing — especially if it means that you'll be comfortable. 
To winter camp is to take joy in pain. You quickly realize that there is something beyond cold— oddly enough, it's comfort. Once you get past the initial shock of being cold, your body adapts, and you begin to get warm again. 
Our adventure took us down the Gunflint. Initially, we had planned to launch from Trails End. However, after about a mile of walking, we realized that the lake wasn't completely frozen over, which was incredibly dangerous, given the fact that we had planned to hike across a few lakes. After a quick regroup, we shifted gears and headed back down the trail and launched from Poplar Lake. 
Our first evening was nestled in the dense forest. We set up camp and built a modified canopy shelter. We knew the sleeping bags were rated -30. So it wasn't going to be too much of a problem. Setting up camp took much longer than expected. Honestly, everything takes longer when you winter camp. After a few long hours of setting up, we nestled around the fire, listened to tunes, and made a much-deserved dinner. Later that evening, as everyone was fast asleep, I remember opening my eyes and seeing the stars glistening in the nights' sky. It was one of the most beautiful things I have ever seen. 
The next morning we packed up our gear and headed further in. It was our goal to set a camp for two nights. That way, we could get settled in and make a more comfortable site. But first, we had to pile snow for a Quinzee. For those not familiar — this is when you build a shelter out of a pile of snow. It's an oversimplification of what it is, but just imagine the snow forts you made as a kid. That exactly what this is. However, building a Quinzee takes time. To be safe, you should let the snow set for 24 hours. That way, it gets compacted enough to hollow out. The process of piling snow takes hours. So many hours-- mainly because it needs to be tall and wide enough to fit two grown people and their dog. 
Did I mention we had our dog with us? Snow camping with your dog is more complicated than it sounds. There isn't a lot of info out there regarding how to prepare your dog for extended hours/days in the cold. It took months of researching before we were comfortable bringing her with. But there are some essential things to note when camping with your dog.
1. Does your dog have a double coat?: Dogs with double coats have a natural insulator to the cold. This provides them with the ability to be in the cold longer and at lower temps than other dogs who only have a single coat. An easy way to test this is to pull the top (guard hair) aside -- if there is an under layer of fur that's slightly different than the top layer— than your dog is better suited for snow.
2. Temp charts: There are charts available that talk about the correlation between temp and how comfortable your dog will be; this varies based on the above factor as well as windchill and cold tolerance. I think the best test is taking your dog out on snowy days. If your dog is happy and comfortable on chilly days (10 or below), they will likely be fine down to zero or below zero.
3. Moving: Your dog will be great while moving (or during the day). Dogs (like humans) generate heat through movement. Furthermore, they don't sweat like we do-- they tend to hold their heat better than us. So during the day, movement is best for them. It's the sitting still that will bother your dog.
4. Layers: There is dog clothing available, and for some, I'm sure it's helpful. But I've found that a majority of clothing for dogs is almost useless. They're better off being free furry if they have a good coat that is adapted to the cold. That being said, If your dog is a short-haired breed, then it would be helpful to equip them with gear. 
5. Shoes: Dog shoes are not as good as you think. I've tried them (multiple times), and Athena has never gotten the hang of them. I think we (as humans) tend to overcorrect things with technology (when it isn't needed). That's the problem with dog shoes. Most dogs are perfectly equipped for the outdoors. That being said, I have found that Mushers Secret is a great alternative. It's a wax-like material that goes on your dog's paws and protects them from salt, ice, and snow buildup. 
6. Sleeping/ Relaxing: Here is where you need to watch your dog. But this is also the most natural part if you're familiar with sleeping in the cold. A lot of heat is lost through the ground. If you don't have proper insulation between the ground and your sleeping bag, you run the risk of losing that heat. The same goes for dogs. We literally had a pad for Athena to sit on at all times. Sure, hanging out on the snow for a little bit is okay. But hours lying around can really make things uncomfortable for your dog. I found that it's a good idea to have a ground pad (much like a human sleeping pad), blanket (wool), sleeping bag, and an additional sleeping blanket. Layering up is critical. The first night that we were out there, it was -0, and Athena started to shake a bit. So we took out our heavy down jackets and wrapped her up in them. After about 10 mins, she was fine and ended up sleeping outside of her blankets. The thing to remember is that you need to have multiple systems in place to make your dog comfortable.
After completing the snow pile, we set up camp for the evening. The temp managed to raise but (around 10), so it was pretty comfortable. The best thing about winter camping is the evening time. There's something amazing about sitting around a fire, drinking, eating, and laughing. When you're out there in the cold of winter, you realize that friendship and laughter go a long way. 
The next morning we awoke to snow falling. In a rush to set up camp, we put up our three seasons tent the night before. Luckily it could handle the snowfall. As I said earlier, when you winter camp, everything is more complicated—especially things like keeping drinking water from freezing.--which is a constant battle. After making breakfast, we went out on a day hike, which took us an hour west. The snow was so deep that even with snowshoes, we were sinking 6-12 inches. But the beauty of fresh powder on trees and trail is unparalleled. 
After a day of hiking, it was finally time to dig out our Quinzee. Seeing this shelter take shape brought back the joy of being a kid again. Knowing that we were going to be able to sleep in this seemed like it was too good to be true. We managed to complete this process in a few hours -- just in time for dinner. Because this was our last night, we cooked a feast and celebrated the shelter building accomplishment. The campsite was filled with laughter, lights, and music. 
Once the time for bed, we crawled into our little snow hut and fell fast to sleep. Sleeping in a shelter like this is actually pretty warm. Tropically it's 20 degrees warmer than it is outside. We didn't believe this until we actually experienced the warmth. Honestly, it was almost hot. But it was so quit— its pretty amazing.
After making our way back to Grand Marais (and even reflecting back on it now), it's hard to imagine that it actually happened. Being in the North and experiencing it in the winter is a wonderful thing. We recommend it to anyone who is wanting to try something a little different, and sometimes a little more complicated. 

Love in the Wilderness

Friday, February 14, 2020
Posted by
Ashley Bredemus

Ashley Bredemus is a writer, photographer, and owner of Birchwood Wilderness Camp at the edge of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness. She lives there year-round in a primitive cabin with her dog, Arlo, and dad, Dan. Her blog, An Outdoor Experience, is all about the fullness of a life lived outdoors!

You know that questioning stage of getting to know someone you have a crush on? You’re asking the “favorite” questions: what’s your favorite movie, what’s your favorite meal, what’s your favorite song...

When Victor and I were in that stage, just over a year ago, I asked about his favorite quote. He rattled it off quickly as if there could be no other answer, Love is passion, obsession, someone you can't live without. I say, fall head over heels. Find someone you can love like crazy and who will love you the same way back. How do you find him? Well, you forget your head, and you listen to your heart. Cause the truth is, there's no sense living your life without this. To make the journey and not fall deeply in love, well, you haven't lived a life at all. But you have to try, cause if you haven't tried, you haven't lived.”

William Parish originally said that but Victor swept me off my feet with it because I could tell he truly lived by it.  We fell head over heels for each other that fall in the Boundary Waters, where we originally met working at Birchwood Wilderness Camp.

As the leaves changed color, we paddled together until the rivers and lakes froze over. We traded our paddles for snowshoes and our canoe for a hand auger. Throughout all the seasons, our favorite place in the BWCAW  has been Romance Lake and not because of its sugary sweet name. No, we love Romance Lake because it feels like our own private slice of the Boundary Waters, never another soul in sight.

When Victor showed up at my cabin door last week suggesting we hike to Romance Lake to see if the fish were biting, I thought nothing of it, “I would love to go fishing on Romance with you!”


We hadn’t seen the sun in seven days but that morning the sun was on full display, following us as we crossed the first lake on our way to Romance portage. 

Seeing the sun wasn’t the only natural miracle of the day! I know this sounds very snow-white of me but I’ve been taking care of a Whiskey Jack with a broken beak this winter. He usually follows me about a quarter of a mile whenever we hike towards Romance but NEVER all the way. 

Except for this day! As if Victor had made a deal with the bird, we arrived at the portage to see him perched above us, coo-ing in a tree.

With our bird overhead, I could feel my spirits lifting after days of relentless gloomy weather.  We made our usual detour to a nice sitting spot, a vista overlooking Romance Lake when Victor said, “Why don’t you take a couple photos of Arlo in front of the view.”

“Excellent idea, hunny!”

Arlo sat for her photograph while I snapped away. I could hear my Whiskey Jack in the tree behind me when Victor whispered, “Arlo.”

As she strode past me, I turned around to see the love of my life, down on one knee with a ring box in his hand.

Nestled inside was a ring with diamonds from my mother's engagement ring placed perfectly on a thin gold band.

I didn’t mean to burst into tears and fall into his arms but I did. I could tell she was there in that moment, as if all the things and people I love came out to make this moment right.


I said yes on the secluded shores of Romance Lake where we first chose to follow our hearts and fell head over heels for each other.

Although we didn’t catch any fish that day in the BWCA, we got something so much better - canoe country paddling partners for life. 

This Valentine’s Day, celebrate your paddling partner and share in our love for the Boundary Waters by sending a Valentine to your representative telling them to protect the BWCA

Happy Trails, 

Ashley Bredemus

Q&A: Fact checking the hearing on the HR5598

Thursday, February 6, 2020
Posted by
Campaign to Save the Boundary Waters

You might have heard a number of red herrings and falsehoods from those opposed to H.R. 5598 in yesterday’s hearing on Rep. McCollum’s bill, the Boundary Waters Permanent Protection and Pollution Prevention bill,. The Campaign to Save the Boundary Waters corrects the record:

Q: If we don’t do the Twin Metals mine in Minnesota, won’t that mean another mine with child labor will open elsewhere to meet demand? 
A: No, opening of a new mine has never resulted in the closure of an existing mine. This represents an expansion by Antofagasta into the U.S. - this mining company is not proposing to close any of its existing mines. Further, it has a terrible record in Chile. Antofagasta insists it will do it right in MN; why can’t it do that in Chile? Mining proponents should hold these global mining companies accountable for human rights and environmental sustainability everywhere they work, before welcoming them here.

Q: Taconite mining has been cleaned up so well, so copper mining clean up will be the same. What’s the problem?
A: Copper mining has a long history of pollution that dwarfs that of taconite mining. Iron ore is fundamentally oxidized (iron oxide) reducing its reactivity. That doesn’t mean it’s not polluting (see the MPCA’s pollution data for sulfate and specific conductance at HibTac and MinnTac).  In comparison to iron mining, however, sulfide-ore copper mining will be far, far more polluting, because the metals in the Duluth Complex are bound to sulfur (sulfide ores).  The chemical reactions of sulfide ores exposed to air and water are different, and produce acids that then leach toxic heavy metals from the Duluth Complex rock out into surface waters and groundwater.

Q: Don’t we need these minerals to ensure our national security?
A: Metals from Antofagasta’s proposed Twin Metals mine won’t go to America.  Antofagasta - the Chilean mining giant that owns Twin Metals - ships almost all of its metal concentrates to Asian companies where it is refined and sold (see page 42 of 2018 Annual Report).  The U.S. should not risk the Boundary Waters only to end up buying the copper back from China.  It’s an absurd idea, and does nothing for U.S. security.

Q: Why should all Americans (“outsiders,” as Congressman Stauber (R, MN-8) called bill propenents) get to decide whether the Boundary Waters is protected?
A: First,Superior National Forest and the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness are American public lands of the very best quality, and all Americans own and have an interest in seeing them protected. Second, those that live closest to the proposed Twin Metals mine are opposed to it.  Polling conducted in 2018, by Donald Trump’s preferred polling firm, shows that 56% of residents in Congressman Stauber’s district (MN-8th) oppose the mine.  A February 2020 poll by the StarTribune and MPR showed the same results: 57% of residents in northern Minnesota oppose copper mining near the Boundary Waters. The suggestion Congressman Stauber makes -- that people up north prioritize copper mining over protecting the Boundary Waters -- is wrong.

Q: Hasn’t Minnesota always done mining safely?
A: Minnesota’s laws were not designed to protect an area as pristine as the Boundary Waters from the impacts of sulfide-ore copper mining in its headwaters and upstream of the Wilderness. Water quality in the Boundary Waters is the best in Minnesota, and any pollution will degrade it.  State standards for mining allow for pollution, and polluted waters from sulfide-ore copper mines would flow into the Boundary Waters. Once the pollution enters the Boundary Waters, it is impossible to contain the pollution or remove or mitigate the damage.  Minnesota’s legacy of mining is based on iron ore, and it is not without impacts (see here about Dunka Pit). There are significant water quality problems and violations associated with many of Minnesota’s iron mines. When asked if Twin Metals could guarantee no pollution, their spokesperson said, “That’s not a fair question.

Q: Why not let the project go through the regulatory process?
A: The legally proper federal process has been broken under the Trump administration. 

The first step in the process was to determine if Twin Metals federal mineral leases should be renewed. For two years, professional staff of the Forest Service conducted a thorough review of sulfide-ore copper mining in the watershed. It conducted numerous meetings in Minnesota and throughout the country. It provided a public comment period and public meetings. At the conclusion of this comprehensive process, the Forest Service determined that sulfide-ore copper mining poses an “unacceptable risk” to the Boundary Waters and withheld its consent to renewal of the leases. The leases were cancelled in 2016. This decision was unlawfully reversed by the Trump administration in 2018 for political purposes. 

Second, the proper process for determining if the public lands in the Boundary Waters headwaters should be withdrawn from the federal mining program was corrupted. For more than a hundred years, it has been the policy of the United States that we do not mine federal minerals that are located in valuable or vulnerable places. Scientific evidence shows that sulfide-ore copper mining in the headwaters would pose an unacceptable risk of harm to the Boundary Waters, the most popular Wilderness Area in America. Because of this, the Forest Service applied for and undertook a mineral withdrawal study pursuant to federal law to determine if mining on federal lands and minerals in the watershed of the Boundary Waters should be banned.  The study was nearly completed when it was suddenly cancelled by direction of the White House for purely political reasons.

Q: Isn’t the mine needed for jobs?
A: Unemployment in NE Minnesota is around 4% (see Page 6) - in other words, there is a labor shortage in Northern Minnesota, not a job shortage.  Further, economic research by prominent economists has shown that a Twin Metals mine would result in FEWER jobs and LESS income than if the existing diverse and sustainable economy continued to grow. If copper mining were to be allowed, it is not surprising that copper mining would cause people to leave the area and find other places to live and vacation. Over the life of a Twin Metals mine, there will be less economic activity in the Ely area with the mine than without. The wilderness-based economy of the Boundary Waters region has accomplished something state leaders have been trying to do for years - diversify the economy beyond just mining. Tourism and the larger amenity-based economy* that is rooted in the Boundary Waters, provide important diversification, resilience to economic downturns, and steady growth each year as the population increases and wilderness areas become more valued. Twin Metals has also said that much of its workforce will come from out of state and out of the country. 

Q: Isn’t copper recyclable?
A: Yes, copper is one of the most recyclable (and recycled) of all metals, and companies like Apple are committing to ensuring that more recycling takes place.

Q: Don’t most Minnesotans support mining? 
A: Most Minnesotans support iron or taconite mining. BUT, an overwhelming majority of Minnesotans oppose sulfide-ore copper mining on the edge of the Boundary Waters.  A 2018 poll of Minnesotans conducted by President Trump’s pollster found that more than 70% of Minnesotans oppose this project. In a February 2020 poll by the StarTribune and MPR, 60% of Minnesotans oppose this project. When asked if providing jobs or protecting the environment was more important when it comes to mining, 66% statewide and 60% in northern Minnesota said the environment was a higher priority.

Q: Doesn’t the dry stacking of tailings make this environmentally benign?
A: No!  So-called “dry stacking” - or piling of the 99.5% of ground up rock that remains after most copper and nickel are extracted - was developed for arid and arctic environments.  It is a dangerous practice in wet environments (like northern MN). The method was rejected by the Minnesota DNR in 2018 because dry stacking increases potential for generation of acid conditions and leaching of heavy metals, increases the spread of pollutants from wind-borne dust, and requires perpetual collection and treatment of seepage (see Findings of Fact beginning on page 97), and because of the high likelihood of re-saturation of the tailings dump in Minnesota’s wet environment would lead to leaching of acid mine drainage.  The pile of toxic tailings would cover 430 acres, and reach a height of130 feet tall. It would tower over the forest, be visible for miles, and present an extreme and permanent risk of failure and pollution to the Boundary Waters.  The four mines pointed to by Twin Metals as models for dry-stacking have all polluted both water and land.

*Amenity-based development is economic activity in a host of industries, including recreation/tourism, but also construction, personal and professional services, retail, and others that arrives or stays in a region for the sake of its scenic, recreational, environmental, and quality-of-life amenities. These amenities induce an in-migration (and support the retention) of human capacity (entrepreneurs, skilled workers) that is the real engine of economic development. Amenities also attract and retain consumers, including retirees and working-age people who could do their jobs anywhere, but who would prefer to live in a place with a high quality of life.


Read the statements from those of testified at the H.R. 5598 hearing:

Statement from Tom Tidwell
Former Chief of the U.S. Forest Service

Statement from Jason Zabokrtsky
Owner of Ely Outfitting Company 

Statement from Land Tawney 
President and CEO of Backcountry Hunters and Anglers